Author Archives: Anna

Spike proteins, mutations and other

Sorry for not writing for some time. This is new for me, and it takes time to adjust to bilingual writing. I have also thought of mutations – a phenomena that has been known for decades. I asked a few questions last time, and it is tough to explain complex genetics with a few words. And in addition, to make it understandable.

A mutation is a change in genetic material that can be passed on to a cell’s or a virus’s descendants. A change in genetic material can be due to many reasons. For example, if you are exposed to radiation at a particular wave length, your DNA can be changed and subsequently may lead to disease. Interestingly, our body has a defence against alterations, so there is a kind of balance. For detailed information, please see:

Enzymes that help copy viral RNA are prone to making errors. Currently there is a lot of discussion with regard to spike proteins. A spike protein is made up of three smaller peptides in ‘open’ or ‘closed’ orientations. The spike proteins on SARS-CoV-2 bind to receptors on human cells, helping the virus to enter. Open conformations makes it more likely for the virus to enter, and might increase the chance of infection.  Please see: Corona virus mutations (Nature), in particular the illustration on page 177.

I havn´t seen anything written on this topic, but mutations must be very interesting for staticians to study since it concerns probability. From what I remember, statistics is very much about probability. The probability of a mutation might increase the virus´s ability to spread and/or cause disease. And also the contrary, a probability that a mutation will harm the virus. Is there a balance of beneficial mutations for the virus? Good for the virus and bad for humanity. That is at a more philosophical level and the question probably needs to be rephrased. Never mind.

The observed spike protein mutation of SARS-CoV-2 has been observed in several countries. Different viruses in different regions. The virus adapts to the environment but has no passport. Biology meets politics. This has forced authorities to make precautions. For the interested reader, I found this article where you can find more detailed foreign biological viral politics, please see: The Lancet – An action plan against.

I have spent this weekend with sweetie and cutie. Actually, I wanted to write earlier, but this is much too complicated and I needed some thinking. A walk in the forest with my beloved dogs cleared my mind. Dogs are very popular in Sweden right now during the pandemic. They definetly help us to stay safe!

For inspiration to education

Writing is a great hobby of mine, and my goal is to inspire other fellow beings to learn and develop. Life becomes more interesting with knowledge. It can touch upon languages, biology, religion, culture, foreign relations etc etc. My main interest is biology, but the last decade I have returned to languages. When I went to school it was very strict with everything concerning grammar, words and synonyms. I am happy when I read news (Swedish, English, French and Norwegian) since they care about written language.

My challenge this year is to find a smooth way of writing good English and Swedish. I hope you will find it inspiring! Next time I will write, I will touch upon mutations. The Corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) has changed and that has been discovered in several countries in the world, including South Africa 🇿🇦. There are so many questions. What is a mutation? Why are there mutations? How does it affect humanity?

Stay safe 🐾

English fruit cake 🇬🇧

When I don’t have much time, I do some mini blogging on Instagram. Like yesterday, when I asked for at recipe for making English fruit cake. I did not have fruitcake this Christmas even though it is a kind of tradition. But life is not what it used to be. Usually I am a bit lazy since I buy this fruit cake. but now I need nice thing to do at home during Corona restrictions. A friend shared a recipe, and now I will make the fruit cake this weekend. There were too many suggestions, and so different, when I browsed the internet.

I promised that I have a gift for you, dear reader. Translation to Swedish. I am getting good IT support, and I am learning. Computers are not my cup of tea, but when I get good help. I learn and I will apply this new way of writing. Surprisingly, I am so used to write in English, so I continue to write in English and then translate to Swedish. I really hope you appreciate this.

Stay safe 🐾

Every day news

In these pandemic times I follow the news to stay updated with the vaccine programs, the development of COVID-19 and so on. When possible, I listen to the news on the radio to get the most neutral news. Then I can make up my own opinion and make my own analyses. For example, I heard that some mechanisms involved in the immune system are being studied. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 make it possible for pharmacological treatments. The disease can be targeted. Still far away, but a step closer.

This is a political virus. It certainly has affected democracy. For example, Joe Biden was recently elected as the President of the United States. A retired Chinese American was interviewed and he was happy about the result. It was rather fun, I think, because he liked Joe Biden and wanted to listen to Bon Jovi to celebrate. I smiled. Every smile in this pandemic is worth a lot. So, I share “Keep the faith” –  an appropriate song in these Corona virus times with Bon Jovi.

Stay safe 🐾

Transparancy and work out

This week has been very exciting. Joe Biden´s triumph over Donald Trump at the American election came true at the inauguration. These weeks have been very turbulent with regard to democracy. I am sure the Corona virus has influenced voters, and that is not surprising. In a way, that is also democracy. Four years are to come with Biden and his Vice President Kamala Harris. Chancellor Angela Merkel marked that she will continue to keep an eye on the USA, and that is understandable since America has a lot of influence on European- and Middle East political relations. I hope the new American government will lead with transparency.

The Corona virus is still very active, and some people have talked about a third wave. Vaccines are available, and there has been time to prepare plans for vaccination. Different vaccines are available at various prices. Drug companies are negotiating with the EU, but local negotiations are also performed since, from what I understand, there are no specific laws yet within the EU regarding a pandemic. Ursula Gertrud von der Leyen is trying to keep together European countries.

Having the vaccine doesn’t mean that you can start living as usual again. Distancing and hand washing will still be very important. It is Saturday and I had my treat. Some training. I am not that strong, but those burpees and sit ups make me keep going in times like this. With distancing and hand washing sport is possible!

Stay safe 🐾